Journal of Computer Research and Development, Vol. 51(2): 239-324, 2014.
1. Survey of Data-Centric Smart City
Wang, Jingyuan; Li, Chao; Xiong, Zhang; Shan, Zhiguang
Motivated by sustainable development requirements of global environment and modern cities, the concept of the Smart City has been introduced as a strategic device of future urbanization on a
global scale. On the other hand, modern cities have built up developed information infrastructure and gathered massive city running data, and therefore are ready to face the coming of the Smart
City concept, technologies and applications. An important peculiarity of Smart City is that the technology system is data-centric. The data science and technologies, such as big data, data
vitalization, and data mining, play pivotal roles in Smart City related technologies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the most recent research activities in data-centric Smart
City. The survey is from an informatics perspective and all summarized Smart City works are based on data science and technologies. This paper first summarizes the variety and analyze the feature
of urban data that are used in existing Smart City researches and applications. Then, the state-of-the-art progresses in the research of data-centric Smart City are surveyed from two aspects:
research activities and research specialties. The research activities are introduced from system architectures, smart transportation, urban computing, and human mobility. The research specialties
are introduced from core technologies and theory, interdisciplinary, the data-centric, and the regional feature. Finally, the paper raises some directions for future works.
Editorial comments: "北京航空航天大学的王静远等作者贡献的“以数据为中心的智慧城市研究综述”一文，站在信息科学的视角上，围绕数据为中心这一主题，对数据驱动的智慧城市及其相关研究工作进行了较为全面的综述与介绍。文章顺应数据科学崛起的时代趋势，在信息技术所及的范围内，对“智慧城市”和“数据”两大关键词相关的研究工作进行了尽可能全面的梳理。希望此文可以帮助读者对该前沿交叉领域的研究脉络建立起快速的概要认识。"
2. An Integration and Sharing Method for Heterogeneous Sensors Oriented to Emergency Response in Smart City
Hu, Chuli; Chen, Nengcheng; Guan, Qingfeng; Li, Jia; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Xunliang
It can be said that smart city will be built on the observations of sensors. Nowadays, city sensors have the features of being diverse in sensor type, different in observation mechanism and huge
in quantity, and they represent a closed, isolated and autonomous observation scenario. Facing with complex city emergency events, it is inefficient to manage those heterogeneous city sensors via
World Wide Web. The scarcity of the real-time, right and reliable data sourced from physical sensors and the inefficiency of emergency response decision-making seriously hinder the “smart”
process of emergency response in smart city. We propose a framework for the integrating and sharing of heterogeneous city sensors oriented to emergency response. Firstly those heterogeneous
sensors are uniformly described; Secondly we register them into a standard Web-based catalogue service and the registered sensor resources can be on-demand discovered; Thirdly, we construct an
integration and sharing platform for city heterogeneous sensors. Last, we use waterlogging emergency response of Wuhan city as the disaster application to verify the feasibility and extensibility
of integration and sharing method for heterogeneous flood-related sensors. The result shows that the proposed framework promotes the shift of heterogeneous waterlogging sensors from the
observation island to integration management situation, which can lay a solid basis for sensor sharing and observation planning required in smart city emergency response.
Editorial comments: "城市感知层：在智慧城市技术体系的总体框架中，城市感知层负责对城市环境中各方面的数据进行感知和收集，对采集的信息进行处理和自动控制，并通过通信模块将数据定向汇聚到合适的位置。中国地质大学的胡楚丽等作者贡献的论文“面向智慧城市应急响应的异构传感器资源集成共享方法”便是在城市感知层开展的一项研究工作。该工作构建了城市异构传感器资源集成共享平台，从而实现了对城市异构传感器资源的统一化描述，解决了城市数据感知过程中面临的传感资源管理难题，为智慧城市应急响应所需的传感器资源共享与观测规划提供了有力支持。"
3. Node Deployment Optimization of Wireless Network in Smart City
Huang, Shuqiang; Wang, Gaocai; Shan, Zhiguang; Deng, Yuhui; Li, Yang; Chen, Qinglin
In smart city, the deployment of network nodes of wireless networks has direct effect on network quality of service. This problem can be described as deploying appropriate AP as access nodes and
special nodes as gateway nodes to aggregate traffic to Internet in a given geometric plane. In the paper, wireless mesh network as an example, number and deployment location of AP nodes can be
determined by the regional flow of people statistics, and gateway nodes deployment is abstracted as a geometric K-center problem. To solve the geometric K-center problem, an improved adaptive PSO
algorithm is proposed to optimize the minimum coverage radius. The fitness function is redesigned, and random inertia weight adjustment, adaptive learning factor, neighborhood searching strategy
are introduced to the improved PSO to get wider solution. Compared with GA algorithm and K-means algorithm, simulation results show that the improved PSO algorithm is more stable and can get
shorter path length, thus the network quality of service can be improved.
Editorial comments: "数据传输层：智慧城市技术体系的数据传输层采用物联网、传感网、新一代互联网等新型网络技术，负责对智慧城市当中感知数据进行传递、路由和分发。暨南大学的黄书强等作者贡献的论文“智慧城市中无线网络基础设施节点部署优化方案研究”，提出了一种数据传输层的技术方案。该方案将城市区域中的人口流量特征引入到无线基础设施的部署规划当中，提出根据区域人流量的统计来确定AP节点的部署位置和数量的优化方法。该工作对于城市数据传输基础设施的智慧化规划决策，有很强的指导和借鉴意义。"
4. A Novel Framework of Data Sharing and Fusion in Smart City—SCLDF
Chen, Zhenyong; Xu, Zhouchuan; Li, Qingguang; Lv, Weifeng; Xiong, Zhang
Smart city is a new concept and model of urban development, and it is the combination of urbanization development and the new generation of information technologies such as Internet of Things,
cloud computing, mobile network and big data. With the explosive growth of the quantity of data in cities, how to share and fuse the massive, heterogeneous, multi-source data in smart city
becomes a core issue which must be solved. In this paper, the characteristics and drawbacks of traditional data sharing and fusion technologies are firstly described and analyzed in details, and
then some frameworks and thoughts such as semantic Web, data vitalization and Internet of data, which may resolve the data sharing and fusion problems in smart city, are introduced. Based on
these studies, a new framework of data sharing and fusion in smart city—smart city linked data framework is proposed. Then the overall layered structure, advantages against the other relevant
frameworks and technologies are described briefly. Next, the functions, technologies and challenges of each layer are described in details. The concept of data semantic annotation tag (DSAT) are
proposed. And the technologies, methods and classifications of DSAT are described in details. At last, the relevant issues about data linked layer are analyzed in details.
Editorial comments: "数据活化层：数据活化层是智慧城市技术体系的数据管理核心层，负责将海量的城市数据进行分类和聚集，通过数据关联、数据演进和数据养护等技术，实现对数据的活化处理，向服务层提供活化数据支持。北京航空航天大学的陈真勇等作者贡献的论文“一种新的智慧城市数据共享和融合框架—SCLDF”从数据活化技术的角度出发，提出了一种智慧城市数据互联框架。SCLDF框架结合LinkedData技术、数据活化思想和数据互联网（TheInternetof data, IOD）思想，以及多媒体标注技术、描述技术，文档标注技术等多种技术，实现了对智慧城市数据的共享和融合。该论文为智慧城市的数据管理和组织提供了一种新的思路。"
5. Smart City Guide Using Mobile Augmented Reality
Zhang, Yunchao; Chen, Jing; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Yue
A new technique for smart city guide using mobile augmented reality is proposed, which satisfies the personalized, multi-scale, comprehensive needs of users and presents active interface with
virtual-real fusion. Mobile side is limited by computing power and resource storage capacity. However, mobile devices usually integrate multiple inertial sensors, which are portable and easy to
display. Server side is used for city-scale location recognition based on vocabulary tree method. Dynamic partition method with GPS information reduces the range of image retrieval. Hierarchical
k-means clustering on BRISK feature with binary descriptors improves the real-time performance of vocabulary tree. Hybrid features based on BRISK and optical flow are executed in parallel for
real-time and robust tracking. Regular re-initialization with BRISK feature is used for reducing errors generated by optical flow. Matching point sets mapping is applied for eliminating drift of
feature points during initialization of BRISK feature. Sequence frames and keyframe information are used for reducing jitter with pose estimation. Experimental results on UKbench and real
environment demonstrate the advantage of virtual-real fusion for city-scale smart guide. Users can easily interact with surrounding real environment. The prototype system has been successfully
applied to smart guide system of Shanghai Telecom Experience Venue and other such guide systems.
Editorial comments: "支撑服务层：支撑服务层对底层的数据和活化服务将进一步的封装，为智慧城市上层应用的开发提供复用和灵活部署的能力，其功能涵盖了云平台、可视化与仿真、公共数据引擎等平台与服务等。北京理工大学的张云超等作者贡献的论文“基于移动增强现实的智慧城市导览”在支撑服务层上对智慧城市的可视化支撑技术进行了研究。该论文提出了一种面向移动终端的增强现实城市导览方法，可以满足智慧城市中用户个性化、多尺度、按需推送的智能导览需求，可以为多种行业应用提供共性服务支持。"
6. Community-Based Bidirectional Feedback System for Hybrid Worm Containment in Mobile Internet
Yang, Hailu; Zhang, Jianpei; Yang, Jing
Aiming at the problem that the existing worm containment methods can’t reply the mobile Internet worm attack which mixes long-range and short-range attack, this paper proposes a mobile Internet
mixed worm bidirectional feedback and containment system based on community. The system consists of SIN (social information networks) containment unit and GIN (geographic information networks)
feedback unit. The SIN containment unit is a type of online community quarantine strategy, which contains worms within the community by identifying the access nodes between communities and
designing the corresponding worm label delivery algorithm. The GIN feedback unit collects the users’ short range communication records, GPS location data and the historical security information
committed by SIN to realize the trust-assessment. Through feeding back the results to SIN containment unit, the GIN limits the next communication decisions of community internal nodes,
accordingly reduces the spreading speed of worms inside the community and realizes the bi-directional loop between the SIN containment unit and GIN feedback unit. Simulation experiments have
proved that the method proposed by this paper has feasibility and effectiveness.
Editorial comments: "应用服务层：应用服务层位于智慧城市体系架构的最顶层，不同规模、不同发展类型的城市可以选择、开发适合自身特点的不同智慧应用，行业特性较强。应用服务层的共性技术主要包括安全与标准两个方面。哈尔滨工程大学的杨海路等作者在论文“基于社区的移动互联网混合蠕虫双向反馈遏制系统”中研究了智慧城市应用服务的安全性问题。论文设计了一种以远程遏制为主、以短程遏制为反馈的移动互联网蠕虫遏制系统，论文提出的方法可以广泛地应用在多种基于移动互联网的城市应用当中，对于提高智慧城市应用的安全性具有很大帮助。"